On the morning of February 1, 1944, a team of Armia Krajowa (Home Army) soldiers assassinated SS-Brigadeführer and Major-General of the police Franz Kutschera, whose terror measures against Polish civilians under German occupation had earned him the nickname “Butcher of Warsaw.” The Polish underground state held an in absentia trial of Kutschera and several other Reich dignitaries and gave the order to carry out the liquidation as part of the larger Operation Heads.
The execution of Kutschera followed several weeks of surveillance and intelligence-gathering near the SS headquarters building and his discovered residence just two city blocks away. The first attempt on Kutschera’s life was prepared for January 28, 1944 but it was aborted because he did not leave his house that morning.
Note: The participants were ethnic Poles, not Jews. The clarification is necessary because I see readers elsewhere mistake the 1944 Warsaw Uprising for the Jewish Ghetto rising of a year earlier.
The operation was carried out by a twelve-person team and consisted of four groups: signals, execution, cover, and two getaway drivers. Three female conspirators, pseudonyms “Kama,” “Dewajtis” and “Hanka,” were on signals duty, standing at long intervals along the route of Kutschera’s 150-meter commute from his house to the SS headquarters building, in front of which he was to be ambushed. The assault team was in position at the opposite end of the avenue, most of them at a streetcar stop (where they wouldn’t rouse suspicion by standing together), just past Kutschera’s intended destination point.
At 9:08 AM, Kama observes Kutschera entering the chauffeured Opel Admiral that was waiting for him outside of his residence. She takes off her coat and drapes it over her arm when he enters the vehicle. She walks across the street when the car starts moving. On Kama’s signal, Dewajtis anticipates Kutschera’s car. It turns onto the main avenue, coming into her view. She crosses the street in front of the approaching car to identify it as the target. Seeing that, Hanka walks up to team leader “Lot” (the pseudonym roughly translates to “Airborne”) and whispers: Now.
Lot removes his hat to signal Go. “Miś” (Bear Cub) was waiting around the corner, behind Lot, in an idling Adler-Trumpf-Junior. He turns his car down the main avenue to intercept Kutschera’s vehicle and blocks it with his, colliding with him at low speed. As the primary executioner, Lot runs toward the cars. The four members of the cover team, along with secondary executioner “Kruszynka” (Tiny) join them. Lot and Kruszynka spray the inside of Kutschera’s car with submachine gun fire at close range, killing the uniformed SS-man driver and heavily wounding Kutschera.
The four-man cover team of “Ali,” “Cichy” (Silent), “Juno,” and “Olbrzym” (Giant), armed with submachine guns and grenades, simultaneously move in between the two cars and the SS headquarters, killing two soldiers in front of the building and then laying suppressive fire, as Germans begin to counterattack from the windows of the headquarters and from the street.
Miś had gotten out of his car. With Kruszynka, he drags the bullet-riddled Brigadeführer onto the pavement. Miś finishes him off with several pistol shots to the head. They search his body for weapons and documents.
During this heavy firefight, Lot and Cichy each take a bullet to the abdomen and Olbrzym is shot in the chest. All three remain alert and ambulatory. Miś takes a glancing bullet wound to the head, which disorients him. A comrade helps him evacuate, as the entire assault team makes it to the two getaway cars that had backed up to them just around the corner, driven by “Sokół” (Falcon) and “Bruno.”
Action lasts one minute and forty seconds. All of the men get away in Sokół’s and Bruno’s cars. Sokół takes the four wounded, plus Juno for security. They pick up physician Zbigniew Dworak (“Dr. Maks”), who gives first aid to the wounded en route to the hospital. Bruno takes Ali and Kruszynka in his car. The female team members had left the area on foot without attracting attention to themselves. There was no German pursuit of the getaway cars, suggesting that the attack on Kutschera caught their forces unprepared for this type of direct action, in that location.
For his leadership and bravery, Lot was awarded the War Order of Virtuti Militari, Poland’s highest military decoration for heroism in the face of the enemy at war. Ten of the remaining eleven participants in the hit on Kutschera were honored with the Cross of Valor (Krzyż Walecznych) for “deeds of valor and courage on the field of battle.”
Polish casualties tallied up to four killed and two wounded. Sokół and Juno dropped Olbrzym and Miś off at a hospital that would treat their comparatively lighter wounds but whose physician in charge refused to take Lot and Cichy, both of whose condition was deteriorating. They were taken to Warsaw’s Praga district on the east side of the river, to the hospital where Dr. Maks worked.
Heading back to downtown Warsaw, Sokół and Juno got pinned down by German police on a bridge. Following a short exchange of gunfire, they abandoned their car and jumped into the Vistula River. Both were shot dead from the bridge while swimming away.
Lot and Cichy died several days later as a result of their abdominal wounds and interruption in post-surgical care. A Polish collaborator-policeman reported the presence of two suspicious wounded men in the hospital to German police, which required their rapid transfer to another location.
The other two of the wounded men were given non-invasive treatment and released. Olbrzym recovered from his chest wound. Miś only needed a dressing and was fine.
German losses included five dead: Kutschera, his driver, two soldiers on the scene, and a policeman on the bridge where Sokół and Juno were stopped. There were also nine wounded.
Polish Scouts commemorate the operation every year with a memorial ceremony and reenactments.
The assassination is also dramatized in this scene from the 1959 Jerzy Passendorfer film “Zamach.” Much artistic license was taken, the main one being that the assassination in reality took place on a broad avenue with elegant state buildings on one side and a park on the other. The dramatization, however, does give an excellent sense of the pace and intensity of the mission, along with an accurate representation of clothing style, weapons, and cars:
Street Plan and View
- Kutschera is picked up at his house on Al. Róż in a car (black rectangle).
- The signals-women are depicted by the first letters of their pseudonyms.
- “T” in a circle marks the streetcar stop.
- Car driven by Miś (no. 4, white rectangle) is parked on Pius XI, then on Lot’s signal intercepts Kutschera’s car.
- Two getaway cars are standing on Szopen street (white rectangles nos. 8 and 9).
- The black dot marks the source of heaviest SS fire.
- The short black arrows show the direction of suppressive fire.
Below, the street view today. The street looks more or less the same now as it did in 1944. The major difference is that the left lane (where you see the oncoming truck) had streetcar rails and there was a row of mature trees along the front of the SS headquarters building, which takes up the right half of this photo.
Kutschera’s residence was just past that taller white building you see in the background. The camera’s vantage point is Lot’s, as he stood farther behind on the corner from which he gave his signal. This is also the vantage point of Miś, as he drove up the street to intercept Kutschera’s car. The large rock in the very center of the photo is a memorial to the event and that’s the point along the avenue where the two cars met.
No action, no matter how meticulously planned, goes flawlessly. The opposing force gets a say in the outcome as well. There might be some unforeseeable element of good or bad luck. People aren’t robots, which means that they can make mistakes despite preparation. Two infamous errors centered on the performance of Ali, the only team member who was not awarded a medal for Operation Kutschera.
Ali stood with the others at the streetcar stop and moved into position according to plan. His responsibility was two-fold. As member of the four-man cover team, he carried a briefcase with hand-grenades. In a clutch moment, Ali couldn’t open his briefcase.
As deputy team leader, he was Lot’s second-in-command. Lot’s order to retreat wasn’t heard by others because his voice was weak due to his injury and Ali — as accepted by historians up until 2009; more about that in a bit — failed to take charge in Lot’s incapacitation and instead ran from the fight toward the getaway cars. Both of his failures unnecessarily prolonged the action and endangered his comrades.
Background on Franz Kutschera
Kutschera was Austrian by nationality. After WWI, he served a year in the Austro-Hungarian navy, then attended a mechanical training academy in Budapest. He joined NSDAP in 1930 and the SS the following year. Served as an envoy to the Reichstag from 1938 until his death. Deployed to the front during the French campaign in the spring of 1940. From 1942 to 1943 he oversaw anti-partisan operations in German-occupied Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Holland, and Belarus, where he developed a reputation for brutal counterinsurgency methods.
He assumed command of SS and police operations in Warsaw in September 1943 and applied unprecedented terror measures to the city’s civilian population, including a dramatic increase the number of public reprisal-executions and street round-ups known as “łapanka.”
Kutschera was decorated with the Iron Cross of the first and second class. He was uncommonly young for his senior rank, 39 years old when assassinated by the Home Army. The Third Reich gave him a state funeral with full honors and under heavy guard. Governor of the occupying powers Ludwig Fischer so eulogized him:
In December 1943, fifty Germans were murdered [in Warsaw], and in January 1944 only five Germans were killed. Also the number of wounded has significantly decreased; while in December 1943, 56 Germans were injured, in January 1944 this number dropped to twenty. The number of attacks in the Warsaw District also decreased, reaching their lowest level in months. This improvement in the security situation, visible everywhere, is to a large extent the result of harsh but necessary measures, which SS-Brigadeführer and Major-General of the police Kutschera used with my approval. Therefore, it is particularly tragic that he, who has done so much for the safety of the Germans living here, himself in the end of the reporting period fell victim to a Polish coup.
I did some reading on German-language sites and as it turns out, family name Kutschera is a distinguished one, claiming not just a war criminal, but also a number of prominent Austrians and Germans: a football athlete, physicist, philosopher, diplomat, architect, biologist, orientalist scholar, two actors, and other outstanding men and women.
Team Leader: Bronisław Pietraszewicz, “Lot”
“At a glance, he did not look like a hero. Slender, not very tall (…) he came across as stubborn and a bit of a hothead, given to debate and intellectual polemics. His talents as a soldier and a leader came to me as a surprise.”
That’s how Bronisław Pietraszewicz’s commander in the youth resistance organization PET reflected back on the young man.
In the first months of the occupation, Pietraszewicz worked at the demolition of buildings that were destroyed during the September 1939 campaign. To help his family financially, he also worked as a night watchman at a cafe. He passed his high school examinations in a clandestine education program (school was illegal past the fourth grade) and began studying at the underground college of mechanical and electrical engineering. He was also a student of jujitsu, which was practiced by all of the soldiers in his resistance unit.
Pietraszewicz was one of the most active members of PET, a youth conspiracy group whose predecessor organization was founded in 1899 under Russian partition. Initially, his activities focused on his own schooling. After connecting with scouting organization Grey Ranks, he engaged in minor sabotage activities, such as posting patriotic slogans on walls and mocking the enemy’s propaganda. The effect of these campaigns was mainly psychological, confirming to the people of Warsaw the existence of an active resistance movement and the possibility of victory despite repressions.
His parents’ apartment, where he lived, was often used for conspiratorial meetings. In 1943, a swearing-in ceremony of new members of the platoon that he led took place there. He also inducted his younger sister Helena, pseudonym “Wrona” (Blackbird), into the resistance movement. She was heavily wounded in an artillery strike during the Warsaw Uprising but afterwards married and lived until 1983.
A 1971 publication on the history of Warsaw during the occupation describes Lot admiringly:
Brave, self-controlled, and with an innate sense of responsibility for the mission and for his subordinates. He had a pleasant attitude toward people and was genuinely trusted by his superiors and comrades.
In March 1944, general command of the Home Army posthumously awarded him the Order of Virtuti Militari and commissioned him to the rank of Second Lieutenant. He was 21 years old.
The Rehabilitation of Stanisław Huskowski, “Ali”?
“It takes only a few moments of reflection for warriors to acknowledge that their greatest fear is not death but failure, and the shame that accompanies failure. More than anything else, warriors fear letting themselves down and letting their leaders and friends down at a moment when it matters most. They fear most not losing their lives, but their honor. Fear of failure is ubiquitous and continuous, before, during, and after an operational deployment.” — William Nash, author and US Navy psychiatrist
A uniquely tragic personal story is Ali’s. He was the sole participant in Operation Kutschera who was not awarded a medal for the action, remembered as an inept soldier who failed to open his briefcase with grenades, exposing his team to hostile fire and prolonging the action. Historians say that, apparently, he also abandoned his wounded commander Lot and ran from the battlefield.
In the National Archives, however, there is a document that may shine a different light on the conduct of Ali during Operation Kutschera. The document is an original and authenticated report that presents a plausible version of the events, according to which Ali did not desert his men. The report was written by Ali himself and signed by his commanding officers.
His failure to open the bag with grenades is not contested. He was forthright about that in his debriefing. But according to this account, Ali took charge when Lot was wounded. Armed with a Parabellum handgun (the possession of which is a key and unresolved item of dispute between the two versions of the events), he shielded the retreat of his team members. Did Ali lie or is his honor due a rehabilitation?
This document, known now as “Ali’s Report” (Raport Alego) was neglected for 65 years until Waldemar Stopczyński, a high school teacher in Gdansk along with his students, analyzed it. They conducted interviews and talked with historians. Their project caught the attention of Warsaw’s major newspaper Życie Warszawy, which publicized this discovery in 2009.
Ali’s tough luck in the hit on Kutschera plunged him into a depression and filled him with remorse to the point where his comrades tried to cheer him up. He wanted to redeem himself by taking part in the next action. His wish was granted: Ali was assigned as overall deputy-commander and team leader of the second assault group in the hit on SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe, which took place in Krakow on July 11, 1944.
The assassination was unsuccessful because Koppe’s driver managed to maneuver his car out of the ambush and escape, albeit not without losses. Several Germans were killed, among them Koppe’s personal adjutant. Koppe was wounded but survived. The Home Army, initially, suffered only one wounded and withdrew according to plan but were subsequently attacked by German troops in a nearby village. The ensuing engagement claimed lives on both sides, including that of the 21-year-old Ali.
Ali participated in two actions prior to the assassination of Kutschera: a train derailment and the liquidation of an informant to the Gestapo. In June 1944, just a month before his death, he was awarded The Cross of Merit with Swords in recognition of his overall service.
First Strike: Michał Issajewicz, “Miś”
“When I leaned over Kutschera, he covered his face with his hands and I emptied most of my Parabellum pistol clip into him.” – Miś
Miś was 22 years old that day. On Lot’s signal, he shifted his idling Adler-Trumpf-Junior into gear and slowly started off to meet Kutschera’s Opel Admiral. He turned left onto the main avenue. Initially driving properly in the right lane, Miś drifted into the middle of the street so as not to let the oncoming limousine dodge him on either side. Seeing that Kutschera’s car is not slowing down, he moved into the left lane. In response, Kutschera’s driver flashed the yellow spotlight that was mounted over his front bumper, indicating “Yield to VIP” and slowed down. Miś slowed down too and both cars stopped. Kutschera’s moved to go around him but Miś obstructed him.
Team leader Lot was the first on the scene, unloading bursts of automatic fire into the Opel Admiral from one meter away and Kruszynka appeared immediately after. As Miś later tells it:
Kruszynka and I pulled Kutschera out of the car. We tore open his coat. One has hellish strength under such conditions. We searched him, I took his briefcase. Then I threw one grenade toward the intersection of Pius Street. I wanted to throw a second grenade toward the headquarters building but as I leaned out from behind Kutschera’s car, I took a bullet to the head. I was stunned, blood washed over my eyes so I couldn’t see anything.
A few weeks later Miś was arrested and incarcerated in Warsaw’s notorious Pawiak prison, but he was not recognized as a participant in the attack on Kutschera. He was then sent to Stutthof concentration camp. Miś was active in Polish youth scouts and veterans organization after the war. He died in 2012.
Other Armed Team Members
Zdzisław Poradzki, “Kruszynka” — 22-year-old secondary executioner. He killed Kutschera’s driver. Later that year, he was wounded three times in the Warsaw Uprising. He died in 1952.
Marian Senger, “Cichy” — Member of the cover team, he was shot in the abdomen and died five days later. He was 20 years old.
Zbigniew Gęsicki, “Juno” — 24-year-old member of the cover team. Trying to evade German police on a bridge, he and getaway driver Sokół were shot in the waters of the Vistula River.
Henryk Humięcki, “Olbrzym” — Member of the cover team, he killed a Wehrmacht soldier in front of the SS headquarters building. He was killed in action in the Warsaw Uprising at age 23.
Bronisław Hellwig, “Bruno” — 23-year-old driver of getaway car Opel Kapitan. He was wounded in another action three months later, and again in the Warsaw Uprising. He died from his injuries shortly after the war ended.
Kazimierz Sott, “Sokół” — 20-year-old driver of getaway car Mercedes 170 V. He and Juno were killed in the river. Before jumping, Sokół tossed a grenade at the feet of the policemen.
The Signals Team: “Kama,” “Dewajtis,” “Hanka”
“For me, the war meant the death of my beloved. This beloved was my father. And that was something that very directly, and very intensely, created in me a hatred for Germans. To Germans as such, but especially to ones in uniform. I remember when I was a ten-year-old girl, I was in a store. Next to me stood a Wehrmacht soldier and he was buying bread. His hairy arm leaned on the counter. I wanted to bite his arm.”
— Dewajtis, c. 2010
Anna Szarzyńska-Rewska, “Hanka”
At 30 years old, Hanka was the oldest team member of Operation Kutschera. Prior to the war, she studied geography at the University of Warsaw and philosophy at Jagiellonian University, graduating in 1937. That same year she married and began working as a teacher.
During the occupation, she served with the Home Army and participated in a number of missions, including, of course, the attack on Kutschera. She fought in the Warsaw Uprising. After its collapse she found herself in German captivity, but escaped from the detention camp where she was taken.
After the war she began corresponding with an expat anti-Communist intellectual and distributed his writings first among her friends, then on a broader scale, for which in 1958 she was sentenced to three years in prison. She remained officially persona non grata after her release, to the point of her name being omitted from a 1967 book about Operation Kutschera.
In 1969, Hanka was awarded the Order of Virtuti Militari. She died in 1970.
Maria Stypułkowska-Chojecka, “Kama”
Kama took part in Operation Kutschera at the age of 17. As a girl scout during the war, she engaged in minor sabotage actions and took nursing and communications courses through underground schooling. She joined the Home Army in August 1943 and two months later participated in the liquidation of SS-Rottenführer Ernest Weffels, commandant of the female section of Pawiak prison. She also took part in five hits after the killing of Kutschera, including the attempt on Wilhelm Koppe.
She served as a nurse in the Warsaw Uprising, during which she was wounded twice. Her portrait here is a fragment of a larger photograph of a lighter moment with another nurse and an injured male soldier during the insurgency.
In 1945, Kama married her Home Army comrade and had two sons with him. She took part in the commemorative ceremony of the attack on Kutschera every year on its anniversary. Opposite of Róż Avenue where she stood is a commemorative plaque on the sidewalk (also where Dewajtis stood). She spoke to a news team about a decade ago, walking them through the action and she still remembered the license plate of Kutschera’s Opel Admiral, SS-20795.
Like Miś, she kept a lifelong involvement with post-war youth and veterans organizations. She died not-quite-three years ago, in February 2016.
Elżbieta Dziębowska, “Dewajtis”
There was a discussion among Home Army officers on whether at 14, she should participate in the assassination attempt. Some were of the opinion that she’s too young. Others, and their point of view prevailed, said that her youth makes her invisible to Germans. She had, already by that point, participated in seven acts of resistance and sabotage — including two assassinations — and was never stopped by the security forces.
For the hit on Kutschera, she fixed her appearance, including hair and makeup, to look German. She wore a winter skirt and white knee-high stockings with little red pom-poms, which was fashionable with German women at the time.
On the morning of the action, she stood where assigned and saw Kama’s signal that Kutschera’s Opel Admiral is moving. She saw the car itself moments later and crossed the street in front of it, walking toward the SS building. This fulfilled her duty in the mission. In a matter of seconds, Kutschera’s car was attacked and she froze up before reaching the opposite sidewalk. As she related it c. 2010:
Our boys are running up. There are bursts of light, gunfire, and there I am, just standing there. I hear a shout: “Ela, Ela!” [her real name] “Be careful, he’s shooting!” You know, I stood there as if thunderstruck. At that moment, I think Kama saved my life. Because even though I understood what was unfolding before my eyes, it was all so unreal. It was like watching a detective drama or a cowboy movie. Here they are running, Lot is running and the other fellows are right behind him, everybody with weapons drawn. Kutschera’s car has already been blocked by Miś.
I turn around and look and there is Kama running and there I am, standing in the line of fire — as immediately behind me stands a Wehrmacht officer. Literally, just a mere four steps behind me and he’s firing his handgun at our guys.
I snapped out of it, ran off the street and screamed in German: “Oh my God what’s going on, hurry!” My voice carried far. [Laughs] I had such a high-pitched voice then. Kama joins me and we start toward Chopin Street. We’re passing three SS-men, [shudders] those brutish Pickelhaube mugs, and they are firing their pistols toward Miś and Kutschera’s cars. But because I had just screamed in German and of how I was dressed, they ignored me and Kama. Those few paces down Chopin may well have been the most terrifying moment of the entire war for me, except maybe sometimes during the Warsaw Uprising.
Once clear of the combat zone, the two women focused on walking away slowly, resisting the urge to panic and break into a run. They walked silently until they boarded a streetcar, where Dewajtis said to Kama: “This is gonna be big…”
She laughs at the end of the interview and says: “It was so crazy, that operation. Something like that could have only been pulled off by young people.”
She participated in three subsequent assassinations, including the attempt on Koppe’s life, and took part in the Warsaw Uprising. After the war, she completed a doctorate in music and became a musicologist of some renown. She died in April 2016, the last living participant in the execution of the Butcher of Warsaw, Franz Kutschera.
“A Sterling Performance”
Kutschera’s direct superior Wilhelm Koppe (same one), presenting to command staff on the state of security, so described the Warsaw action of the Polish underground state:
The most serious shocks of the last period include two major attacks; SS Brigadeführer Kutschera fell victim to one of them. Members of the nationalist resistance movement have prepared this attack so precisely that it can be called a sterling performance. A sketch was found (…), which suggested that the plan of the attack was thought out to the smallest details, down to the positions occupied by its individual participants and the order of the shots fired.
Draconian punitive measures were leveled on the residents of Warsaw, including heavier police-state repressions, as well as economic sanctions and fines for “the population’s dereliction of duty to control their own criminal element.”
On February 2, 1944, near the place of the action, the SS shot one hundred Polish male hostages brought from Pawiak prison. Home Army soldier “Mazur” witnessed the execution:
I look at faces of the bystanders, people wiping their tears, women covering their eyes. The gendarmes are looking at us, closely observing our behavior. From over where the trucks are, I could hear the footsteps: the condemned hostages are lumbering across the street, they walk side by side with each other. The Germans on both sides are pulling their arms to make them cross the street faster. (…) I clearly saw that they were without headgear, instead they only wore some kind of white headbands. Then I realized that they were blindfolded. They approached the wall. They faced the iron fence (…). A salvo of gunfire. They fell over their faces toward the wall, rolling to the ground (…)
I looked again and saw the next group running across the road. They stopped next to those already lying on the bloody ground while over by the truck I saw the next group of condemned. Gunfire drowns out the military commands and the next group is brought over (…) Finally, there was silence. The firing squad marched off to the side. All you could see is the bodies lying along the avenue. Civilians of some kind were throwing the dead bodies into the trucks (…) I saw clearly how they flushed the entire pavement and road with water. The streetcar rails ran with streams of blood and water.
Another two hundred Poles were murdered on the same day in the ruins of the former Ghetto. In addition, on February 11, Germans hanged 27 Pawiak prisoners on the balconies of a prominent building. On February 15, another approximately 40 hostages were shot.
Was it worth it?
There are slogans that patriotic men like to affirm, such as “death before dishonor.” Do those words mean something? Answer the latter question and you have your answer to the first one. Under the Reich’s Ostplan, Poland’s population was slated for extermination, with a remnant of least-intelligent people spared to comprise a permanent slave-class. The Polish underground state and its Home Army soldiers faced a simple dilemma: resist or perish.
Warsaw paid dearly for executing the murderer Kutschera. The people of that city also paid a bloody price for the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, with the murder of 200,000 civilians in Wola district that was meant to break the Polish spirit but instead steeled it for a fight to the death.
Generations later, the ghosts of your martyrs are the wind at your back. Look at Poland today. “Not yet perished,” as goes the first line of her national anthem.
In one of his novels, Günther Grass expressed his chagrin that formerly-German cities in post-war Poland now have unpronounceable names like Wrzeszcz. That city’s previous name, Langfuhr, no doubt sounds like home to the German ear. To me though, the phonics of Langfuhr, while I respect the word’s gentle grace, have a bit of an alienating Pickelhaube quality while believe it or not, “Wrzeszcz” to me rings like a sweet melody.
And these deep differences in how our respective heritage makes us feel about the sound of syllables is Europe’s brilliance.
We all know that should the West go brown, none of this will have mattered. Eternal oblivion, the end of history.
Under Angela Merkel’s Fourth Reich, itself subsidiary to globalist finance and beneficiary of NATO military enforcement, Polish and German patriots find themselves today on the same side of the great challenge of our times: that European nations prevail over the forces that would dissolve them.
Few things warm my heart like when I see some European country’s nationalist video on YouTube and heavily up-voted comments “Respect from Poland!” and “Respect from Germany!” appear underneath. In a White, Christian Europe of brotherly nations, Poles and Germans can fight side-by-side like we did in 1683 at the Battle of Vienna.
Bohaterom cześć i chwała. Glory and honor to the heroes.
Select references (all in Polish):
- “Zamach na Franza Kutscherę – rekonstrukcja zdarzeń” (2014 YouTube / Michał Dukaczewski / RMF24)
- “Akcja Kutschera – historia zamachu na kata Warszawy oczami uczestniczki” (2013 YouTube / Paweł Wudarczyk)
- “Zamach na Kutscherę – Rekonstrukcja , zeznania urzestników” (2018 YouTube / Trochę historii / TVP Historia)
- “Jak naprawdę zginął Kutschera: relacja uczestnika akcji Michała Issajewicza, ps.Miś” (2012 YouTube / Andrzej Fedorowicz)
- “Zrehabilitować Alego?” (2009 Życie Warszawy)
- Raport Alego (various documents/discussions)
- “Akcja Kutschera” (2018 pl.wikipedia)
- Powstańcze Biogramy (2018 Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego)